Original Research

Condemning or liberating the twelve tribes of Israel?: Judging the meaning of κρίνοντες in Q 22:28, 30

Llewellyn Howes
Verbum et Ecclesia | Vol 35, No 1 | a872 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ve.v35i1.872 | © 2014 Llewellyn Howes | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 21 May 2013 | Published: 08 August 2014

About the author(s)

Llewellyn Howes, Department of Religion Studies, University of Johannesburg, South Africa


At the turn of the second millennium AD, Tuckett dubbed Q 22:28–30 an ‘exegetical stepchild’,given that it has traditionally and commonly received very little attention in Q research. Thisarticle addresses this shortcoming. Specific attention is devoted to the refutation of Horsley’sinfluential claim that, in Q 22:28–30, the verb κρίνοντες actually means ‘liberate’ and not‘judge’. The discoveries made along the way have significant implications not only for ourunderstanding of this specific Q text, but also for our understanding of the Sayings GospelQ and its people in general. The latter pertains especially to their particular view of the finaljudgement, as well as their relationship to greater Israel.

Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article refutes the popularclaim that κρίνοντες in Q 22:28–30 actually means ‘liberate’ and not ‘judge’. The latter hasimplications not only for the interpretation of Q 22:28–30, but also for our understanding ofthe Sayings Gospel Q, its people, the historical Jesus, and the ancient concept of ‘judgement’.


Sayings Gospel Q; κρίνοντες; Q 22:28-30; Judgment; Horsley; Israel; Condemn; Liberate; Judge; Q people; rule; throne


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