Original Research

Exclusive language: The tool to empower and create identity

Ananda Geyser-Fouche
Verbum et Ecclesia | Vol 37, No 1 | a1495 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ve.v37i1.1495 | © 2016 Ananda Geyser-Fouche | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 07 July 2015 | Published: 20 May 2016

About the author(s)

Ananda Geyser-Fouche, Department of Old Testament Studies, University of Pretoria, South Africa


This article used some postmodern literary theories of philosophers such as Jean-François Lyotard, Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida and Julia Kristeva to scrutinise a selection of texts from the post-exilic period with regard to the exclusive language employed in these texts. Lyotard’s insights relate to and complement Foucault’s concept of ‘counter-memory’. Foucault also focuses on the network of discursive powers that operate behind texts and reproduce them, arguing that it is important to have a look from behind so as to see which voices were silenced by the specific powers behind texts. The author briefly looked at different post-exilic texts within identity-finding contexts, focusing especially on Chronicles and a few Qumran texts, to examine the way in which they used language to create identity and to empower the community in their different contexts. It is generally accepted that both the author(s) of 1 & 2 Chronicles and the Qumran community used texts selectively, with their own nuances, omissions and additions. This study scrutinised the way the author(s) of Chronicles and the Qumran community used documents selectively, focusing on the way in which they used exclusive language. It is clear that all communities used such language in certain circumstances to strengthen a certain group’s identity, to empower them and to legitimise this group’s conduct, behaviour and claims – and thereby exclude other groups.

Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Based on postmodern literary theories, this article compares the exclusive language used in Chronicles and in the texts of the Qumran community, pointing to the practice of creating identity and empowering through discourse. In conclusion, the article reflects on what is necessary in a South African context, post-1994, to be a truly democratic country.

Keywords: Exclusive language; inclusive; Jean-François Lyotard, Michel Foucault, Pierre Bourdieu; Derrida; Qumran Chronicles


Exclusive language; inclusive; Jean-François Lyotard, Michel Foucault, Pierre Bourdieu; Derrida; Qumran Chronicles


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Crossref Citations

1. African contextual hermeneutics
Ebele C. Chukwuka
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doi: 10.4102/ve.v43i1.2406